Woolly buggers should definitely be at the top of your list for any freshwater species.
For panfish, you'll want a smaller size for their smaller mouths, so stick with a #8 or so. A black sparkle bugger would be my pick. Also try some small poppers, but be prepared for some frustration because it can be tough for them to get the popper into their little mouths so you can expect a lot of missed hooksets. Another great fly for panfish (and bass too) is a hornberg streamer. I've caught hundreds if not thousands of panfish on this pattern.
For the bass, go bigger to something like a #2 or #4 (or even 1/0 if you can find it). The black sparkle bugger and hornberg will work great for them too, but just use a little bigger one. Also try olive and plain black buggers, and yellow if you can find it. A deer hair or foam body popper is deadly in the hour before dusk once the water temps get above 60. It can work during the rest of the day, but in the hour before dusk it's probably the best fly you can use. Color isn't really that important, just make a lot of splashing noises with it. A Dahlberg diver is another essential bass fly. Colors for this should be white, yellow, natural (i.e. brown), and black. This should cover you pretty well. With a couple each of woolly buggers, poppers, and Dahlberg divers you'll be covered for almost any bass fishing situation. One other fly to add if you're going after river smallmouth is a brown woolly bugger or crayfish imitation.
For carp, black or purple are good colors. Carp are a tricky fish to catch on a fly though so if I were you, I'd concentrate on the panfish and bass to start.
My passion for catching fish is eclipsed only by the fish's passion not to be caught.