Glad you are finding fly fishing so much fun. Getting bass on dry flies is really more a question of attracting them to the size, noise, and motion of the fly. Deer hair bass bugs and foam or balsa wood poppers are the time tested surface flies for bass. You may not be able to find any of these near were you live though Bass Pro Shops and other catalog outlets carry them. The deer hair bugs run in the area of $5.00 and the poppers somewhere around $2.50 or even a little less.
When you get a better rod, I'd recommend you look into getting a 7 or possibly an 8 wt one because they work better when casting wind resistant flies like deer hair bass bugs and poppers. Also, bass like large streamers (they imitate baitfish) and large nymphs like dragon fly nymps, and both types are again best cast with the 7 or 8 wt rod.
There are many good rods on the market in the $150.00-$200.00 range (TFO, Redington, St. Croix, Sage, Loomis, Echo, Lamiglas, Cortland all make good rods in that price range). There are also quite a few good complete rod, reel, line combos on the market for between about $175.00 -$250.00.
You might want to see what some of our site sponsers have available in your price range or even contact some of them via email and tell them what you are looking for and how much you can spend. They would give you top notch service and would provide you with good equipment in your price range. Not to mention they are all experienced fly fishers who won't steer you wrong.