Not to step on Ann's toes, but here's a quick reply.
The confusion comes in Quebec as there are Outfitters who have exclusif rights to water and or territories.
Say for moose hunting, a well known outfitter north of Lac St-Jean has a contract with the gouvernement and has exclusive rights to the hunting in a certain area. For a hunter to use that area, he must book with that particular outfitter (and use a guide if needed).
On some salmon river I believe this is also the case (Ann, help me here ??).
On other areas, the usage is public access (whether open or through lotteries) and anyone can go there whether through an "agent", unattached outfitter, guide or even travel agent.
For example, I'll sometimes show anglers around for walleyes on Lac St-Jean. 100% public access to this water. Just need a guide sometimes as the lake is 46 miles in diameter and the walleye could be anywhere.